カザフスタンにおける新型コロナウイルスの状況

カザフスタンにおける新型コロナウイルスの状況

 3月13日、アルマティで同国初のコロナウイルス感染例が発見されました。ドイツからアルマティへ渡航したカザフスタン市民2人(1974年生まれの男性と1984年生まれの女性)が新型コロナウイルス感染症で陽性反応を示した後に、感染症病院に入院しました。コロナウイルスに感染した最初のカザフスタン人は3月10日にドイツからカザフスタンへと渡航し、2人目は3月に自家用機でカザフスタンへ渡航しました。

 感染の拡大を防ぐため、3月16日から年5月1日までの間、同国では緊急非常事態が発令されました:出入国制限が設けられ、すべての地域で検疫などの措置も講じられました。食品店以外の大型小売店や映画館など、比較的混雑した店舗の営業も政府によって禁止されました。

 2020年1月26日からは、州境を越えた検問所での衛生・疫学的管理が強化され、衛生管理員の養成訓練なども行われました。

 カザフスタンでは薬局で医療用マスクが不足しており、事後にマスクを事前に購入した投機家が高値で販売していたことも報告されました。

 2月20日から、コロナウイルス感染拡大のリスクの度合いに応じて、諸外国を3つのカテゴリーにランク付けする方法が導入されました。リスクの度合いに応じて、コロナウイルスの対応が遅れている国から渡航した人は、医学的監視の対象となります。

 保健省は3月1日から第4段階の強化を導入しました。カテゴリー1aの国から渡航してきた人は、14日間検疫所への待機を命じられ、その後10日間の医学的監視下に置かれます。第1b類国から渡航した者は14日間の自宅隔離となり、衛生局の判断により医療施設での隔離も可能とします。第二類国から渡航した者は、14日間自宅で医学的管理下に置かれた後、10日間の電話での問診を受けます。第三類国から渡航した者は24日間、電話による問診や監視を受けます。

 3月15日、カザフスタンのカシムジョマルト・トカエフ大統領は、2020年3月16日8:00から2020年4月15日7:00までの間、カザフスタン共和国においての緊急事態宣言を発令する政令に署名しました。緊急事態宣言の期間中、以下の措置と期限が導入されました。

 新型コロナウイルスの感染拡大の脅威のため、国内で対策を導入したことに関連して、大学も全てオンライン教育に切り替わり、国家は国民を守るために多くの対策を講じました。

 今のカザフスタンの話をすると、国民の多くは家で自主隔離しており、食料品、生活必需品を入手するためにスーパーや薬局に行く人が多いのですが、事態を深刻に受け止めず、街中を歩く人もいます。

 カザフスタンの科学者やウイルス学者たちは、コロナウイルスのスクリーニングやワクチンの開発のために、独自の検査システムの開発に取り組んでいます。彼らには国家の支援が必要です。そして我々の国が彼らにこれを提供してくれることを期待しています。

 さらに、この状況は、主に国の衛生疫学サービス(SES)に多大な責任を課しています。今後、このような規模の疫病が再発する可能性があることを前提に、疫学者、衛生士、衛生医などの専門スタッフを配置し、SESサービスの大幅な強化を考えるべきです。

 最後に、4月15日現在の新型コロナウイルスの感染状況について

 1275例の陽性患者。アルマトイ 370件、ヌールスルタン 294件、キジロラダ 126件、カラガンダ 81件、アクモラ 80件、アティラウ 70件、チャンビル 49件、トルキスタン 49件、シムケント 40件、カザフスタン北部 26件、アルマトイ 24件、カザフスタン西部 18件、アクトベ 13件、パブロダル 11件、マンギスタウ 11件、カザフスタン東部 8件、コスタナイ 5件。治癒数207名。死亡者数15名。

市民のシンボルのリスの像
別のリスはマスクをしていて、そこには“Birge”(togetherの意味)と書かれている
アルマティ市の様子:自宅隔離の前はスモッグに覆われていた
自宅隔離の後はスモッグが消えている

注)原文からの和訳はJSTによるものです。正確な表現やデータについては、下記の英語原文をご参照ください。

●英文オリジナル

Covid-19 in Kazakhstan

On March 13, the first cases of coronavirus infection in the country were discovered in Almaty. Two citizens of Kazakhstan (a man born in 1974 and a woman born in 1984) who flew from Germany to Alma-Ata showed positive results for coronavirus infection. Patients were hospitalized in an infectious disease hospital. The first Kazakhstani infected with coronavirus arrived in Kazakhstan from Germany on March 10, the second - on a private plane on March.

In order to prevent the spread of the disease, a state of emergency was introduced in the country from March 16 to May 1, 2020: restrictions on entry and exit from the country were established, quarantine or other restrictive measures were introduced in all regions, the operation of large non-food retail outlets, movie theaters and other crowded places.

From January 26, 2020, sanitary and epidemiological control at checkpoints across the state border was strengthened, and training exercises were held.

In the country there was a shortage of medical masks in pharmacies. Subsequently, it was reported that speculators who pre-bought masks sold them at inflated prices.

Since February 20, a methodology has been introduced for ranking countries into 3 categories, depending on the degree of risk of the spread of coronavirus infection. Depending on the level of risk, persons arriving from countries that are not in accordance with Covid-19 are subject to appropriate medical monitoring.

Since March 1, the Ministry of Health introduced the fourth stage of strengthening. Persons who arrived from category 1a countries were placed in quarantine for 14 days, and then they were also under medical supervision for 10 days. Persons who arrived from category 1b countries were placed in home quarantine for 14 days; by the decision of the sanitary service, these persons could be quarantined in a medical facility. Persons arriving from countries of the second category were under medical supervision at home for 14 days, followed by a 10-day call. Persons arriving from third category countries were remotely monitored by phoning for 24 days.

On March 15, President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev signed a decree on imposing a state of emergency in the republic for the period from 8:00 on March 16, 2020 to 7:00 on April 15, 2020. For the period of the state of emergency, the following measures and time limits were introduced:

In connection with the introduction of special security measures in the country because of the threat of the spread of coronavirus, universities have switched to online education. The state has taken a number of measures to protect the population. On March 16, early holidays were announced for schoolchildren of Kazakhstan, and students were transferred to distance learning.

Since March 19, around the border of several regions of Kazakhstan, around a number of large settlements, round-the-clock sanitary posts were placed.

On March 30, the State Commission for ensuring the state of emergency, executing the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan approved the decision to establish a monthly fixed bonus to the salary of medical workers involved in anti-epidemic measures. One-time payments were also provided: in case of illness of a health worker - 2 million tenge, in the event of his death - 10 million tenge.

On April 3, at a meeting of the state commission on the proposal of the Ministry of Health, it was decided to build three infectious hospitals for 200-300 people from quickly erected structures in the cities of Nur-Sultan, Alma-Ata and Shymkent.

To support businessmen whose financial situation worsened due to the state of emergency, on March 20, the government of Kazakhstan signed a decree on exemption from payment of taxes until December 31, 2020: 1) property tax for legal entities and individual entrepreneurs at large retail facilities, trade entertainment centers, cinemas, theaters, exhibitions, and fitness and sports facilities; 2) land tax on agricultural lands of agricultural producers; 3) individual income tax of individual entrepreneurs working in the generally established taxation procedure. He also suspended interest on unfulfilled tax obligations until August 15, 2020, and postponed the deadline for submitting tax reports to the third quarter of 2020.

Working citizens of Kazakhstan who lost income during a state of emergency due to forced leave without pay, as well as self-employed and who worked informally, received payments from the state social insurance fund. The amount of social payment per employee amounted to 1 minimum wage (42.5 thousand tenge per month).

On April 9, a team of doctors from China (infectious disease specialists, virologists, pulmonologists, resuscitators, public health experts) flew to Nur-Sultan in order to consult Kazakhstani doctors in the capital, Alma-Ata and Karaganda for 15 days. On the same day, a plane flew in from China with five tons of humanitarian aid (masks, gloves, thermal imagers, ventilators, drugs).

On April 14, by decree of the President of Kazakhstan, the state of emergency was extended to 07:00 on May 1.

Many people sit at home, and they only go to the store and the pharmacy, but there are those who do not take the situation seriously and walk on the streets of the city.

Kazakh scientists and virologists are working on the development of our own test systems for the screening of coronavirus and the development of vaccines. They need the support of the state and the necessary conditions and I hope that our state will provide them with this.

In addition, this situation imposes a tremendous responsibility primarily on the sanitary-epidemiological service (SES) of the country. Assuming that epidemics of this magnitude are likely to recur in the future, one should think about a significant strengthening of the SES service, providing it with professional staff of epidemiologists, hygienists and sanitary doctors.

Situation on April 15. At 12.30 - 1275 cases of registration of Covid-19: Almaty - 370; Nur Sultan - 294; Kyzylorda region - 126; Karaganda region - 81; Akmola region - 80; Atyrau region - 70; Zhambyl region - 49; Turkestan region - 49; Shymkent - 40; North Kazakhstan region - 26; Almaty region - 24; West Kazakhstan region - 18; Aktobe region - 13; Pavlodar region - 11; Mangistau region - 11; East Kazakhstan region - 8; Kostanay region - 5. Recovered: 207. Died: 15.

Contributed by Laura Aubekerova

●About the photos

The squirrel sculpture symbolizes the life of citizens. The art object was installed in July 2018 and represents the life of citizens, the squirrel, like ourselves, is in constant motion, it must constantly adapt to a changing environment, look for resources for survival. However, she is not a predator, this is a good creature. In its paws, the Almaty squirrel holds an acorn as a reward and a symbol of hope for the future. "

Squirrel, as a resident of the city, also supports you in the fight against a pandemic. A mask is just a symbol. After all, the main thing is unity in this situation. “Birge” means “together”.

We could find a plus in the introduction of quarantine - for the first time in many years, the smog scattered over the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan

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